Many people approach measuring fish with a relaxed approach and risk hefty fines, particularly if the fish is borderline size. There is no grey area when it comes to legal size of catch. Even the difference of 1cm can have you in trouble, and is just not worth the risk of a fine.

Sustainability needs to be taken very seriously, hence Fisheries have very clear guidelines. Sustainable fishing means that fish are harvested at a sustainable rate, so the fish population does not decline over time due to poor fishing practices. Imagine a world that is over-harvested and the corresponding devastation to the eco-system and to our future generations. It is the responsibility of each and every one of us to do our bit to protect the planet.

Size limits are typically based on biological research into the reproductive cycle of each species. Minimum size limits generally allow fish to spawn at least once and contribute to the population before they are taken.

The biggest mistake when measuring the length of your catch is where people don’t use a flat surface to measure the fish on. Ensure that if you use a mat, that it is not crumpled causing you to potentially overestimate the size of the fish. Adhesive or stick-on devices, when exposed to the weather, can shrink and become unreliable. Using a solid measuring implement is the best way.

As fish tend to contract if placed on ice, err on the side of caution and allow an extra inch at the initial measure.

Close the jaw of the fish to ensure an accurate reading. The overall measurement of a fish, whether it is fork tailed or round tailed, is taken from the outside of the snout on the upper jaw, to the extreme tip of the tail.

Your State Fisheries website will likely have an outline on how to measure an array of sea life e.g. crabs and squid as well as fish, so it might be worthwhile printing out a copy and keeping it in your tackle box for reference.

To assist in survival of your catch, avoid holding the belly area as you will almost certainly damage internal organs, which reduces chances of survival dramatically.

Never touch the fish’s gills as they are easily damaged.

Use a pair of long-nosed pliers, or a purpose made hook-release to quickly and efficiently remove the hook. If the fish has hooked deeply, cut the line as close to the hook as possible and leave the hook in the fish as it will probably do more damage trying to remove a deep hook than to leave it where it is.

A fish has no lungs so the moment it comes out of the water it stops ‘breathing’.

Research indicates that after landing a fish, keeping it out of the water for 30 seconds reduces the chances of survival by 30%, and 60 seconds out of the water reduces its survival by 70%.

Lastly, try to place the fish gently back into the water, as throwing it is also likely to greatly decrease the fish’s chances of survival.

Happy fishing!

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By Larry Cole

Fly fishing techniques can be used on streams, rivers, ponds and lakes. Fly fishing works in salt water and fresh water, cold water and warm water. Fly fishing techniques can be broken down into sub-surface and on the surface. Sub-surface means fishing between the bottom of the stream and the surface of the water column. Cast the fly to a position in front of the path of a target fish. This position should be a point on either side of the fish but ahead of it. Casting a light fly like that is impossible with traditional fishing rods and casting is one of the most important skills a fly fisherman needs to grasp. Learning to cast is about commitment to the art. Cast out away from the boat or drop it directly over the side, straight down. Once the lure hits bottom pull it upward and let it free fall back to bottom. Cast it out, then retrieve it quickly through the water and the fish will throw themselves at it.

Rods were still heavy and clumsy, while the few existing reels were very simply constructed and quite small in comparison to the rods. The rotating spool lacked a brake and actually had only one function – to store the line on. Rods that are moderate to slow in action can also be used as they load easily and are pleasurable to cast for extended periods.

Anglers have been taught that the line should straighten completely at the end of a cast, but when you are casting downstream, this “proper” casting technique causes the fly to begin dragging immediately, making a dead drift impossible. My most skilled clients, those who were able to hook the fish in this pool, figured out that the key to this presentation was slack. Anglers started devising running line systems, where they could use shorter rods and longer lines. Eventually this led to the development of reels and the widespread use of shorter rods and reels. Anglers in North America additionally rise assorted literatures regarding to fly-fishing. The competition of fly-fishing as well as all these literatures gave North America the repute of being the hearth of dry fly-fishing, privately the City of Calgary, Alberta.

Generally, simply using weights on the leader or the fly line can do an adequate job of pulling down a wet fly to the right depth. Generally the Shimano reels are costly since they are manufactured from special materials and have a variety of features t. Generally, when a fly is cast for bass it should be allowed to remain unmoving for a longer period of time then for trout. It is estimated that 60% of bass strikes are made on a still fly. Nymph fishing, since the fly is underwater and is often extremely small, can test the abilities of any angler, and often leaves the beginner angler frustrated to extreme levels. Yet, the ability of have good nymph fishing technique is essential for productive trout fishing. Nymphing was best early. Karen had limited experience with streamer fishing and missed a number of fish but by late in the float she was an old pro, hooking trout almost every place she put the fly.

Bass fishing is also doing very well in this area with several 10lb bass fish surfacing last week. Raccoon Point is offering solid catfish fishing as well right now. Bass fishing has been quite good although the water levels dropped in such a huge hurry, the end of the season is already very near. The lower floats are done when the river is above 2000 cfs at the start of the trip and we have already hit that obviously. Bass dozer gets a small sales commission if you begin shopping at these stores from here. You always get the same low price you would pay anyway.

Trout are not very nice to each other. Trout’s living here are very spooky compared with the cousins living in slow moving and bigger waters. Highest care in the approach is necessary. Trout are fish, after all, and make different use of their senses than we do. Understanding these senses can greatly increase the prospects of a successful fly fishing trip. Trout behavior in lakes versus rivers versus streams can often be a real problem for even the most experienced fishermen.

Dry fly fishing is said to be the most pure method with which one can fool his quarry. I love nothing more than to watch a trout rise to my properly presented dry fly and then gently sip it in. Dry fly fishing is the best known and is considered the classic form. Using the dry fly fishing technique, the angler casts the fly in the hope that the trout rise up and bite the fly, as it introduces overhead. Dry fly fishing is the most familiar and is regarded as the classic form. Using the dry fly fishing technique, the angler casts the fly upstream hoping that the trout will rise up and bite the fly as it passes overhead. Wet fly fishing dates back hundreds of years, well before dry fly fishing came around. Wet fly fishing is one of the best ways for anglers to get introduced to sub-surface fishing. Unlike nymph and dry fly fishing, where skill, practice and precise imitations are needed to effectively take trout consistently, wet fly fishing can provide rewards quickly – even to beginner anglers.

Waders allow you to traverse waters and reach places you can not from the shore. Fly fishers spend a lot of time on the water, but most of the time it is IN the water. Waders will allow the angler to fish in toward, rather than out from, a bank, or even to wade beyond or around a submerged tree or other fish-harboring cover. Stream fly fishing is done in some of the most beautiful areas of the country. It is essential that we do everything we can to keep it that way. Streamers and buck tail flies do not imitate any part of the insects life cycle. These types of fly fishing flies are much larger and represent small bait fish such as sculpin minnows.

Basically, you should go light and not try to use a line that is overweight. If you have never done any casting before it may be necessary to get some lessons from a professional. Basically level and double tapers do not do well in saltwater fly fishing. This makes for an easier cast and stronger reel in.

Larry Cole

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Fly fishing the large and small “drive-in” high lakes of Oregon and the Pacific Northwest is an art in itself and good fly-fishing information about a lake is of prime importance to the success of the high lake fly fisher. You need a good understanding of the lake bottom, the insect life and the feeding habits and characteristics of the resident trout.

Use a depth finder in waters of 12 to 15 feet to look for old river or creek channels, drop offs, and uneven bottom contours that tend to hold fish. It is easy to keep track of those special locations in a logbook with the help of a GPS system or simple triangulations using shoreline landmarks as reference points. Also, look for shallow waters (4 to 8 feet) with patches of weed beads and silt covered muddy bottoms. You can easily fly fish these types of waters in depths of no more than 10 feet, using a slow sinking clear fly line and a count down method. The areas with these types of bottoms can support a wide variety of insect life including: May flies, caddis flies, damselflies, dragonflies, scuds, chironomid (midges), and leeches. Where you have insect life, you should find fish.

When I am fly fishing the high lakes, I carry three rods in my boat strung up ready to fish. One rod is a 9 footer with a WF #5 dry line for fishing emergers and dry flies. The 2nd rod is also a 9 footer but with a WF #6 dry fly line rigged with a 10-foot leader, a small adjustable indicator, a small nymph or chironomid. The 3rd rod, also a 9 footer which is matched with a WF #7 slow sinking clear fly line with an 8 foot leader for fishing a wooly bugger, leech pattern or a dragon fly nymph.

If you are fishing a clear mountain lake from a small anchored boat, keep the sun at your back and stay in the blind spot of the fish and maintain a low profile so you won’t need to make a long fly cast. Don’t cast your fly in the same place more than once. In this case consider casting in a 90-degree arc from you position. Start casting 45 degrees out to the left, After working your fly back to your pick-up point, make the next cast 5 degrees to the right of the first cast etc, until you are casting straight ahead. The next cast is 45 degrees out to the right. Continue decreasing the arc by 5 degrees until you are casting straight ahead. I call this cutting the pie and in this situation you are casting 5 degrees toward center on each cast so the shadow of the fly line does not alarm the fish before they see your fly. Always cut the pie to cover as much water as you can while at the same time, casting so that the shadow of the fly line does not alarm any fish that are in the area. For more information refer to my article on Ezine “A nymph fishing tutorial”. After changing your fly pattern, repeat “cutting the pie”. After you have thoroughly covered the water with a new fly, quietly pull your anchor and move to another area and change flies again until you find the right fly pattern and or the right lake bottom and feeding fish.

Many high lakes are also exposed to seasonal hatches of black carpenter ants and termites that are blown onto the lake from lakeside fir trees. Black ants usually come out in the middle of June or when the air temperature around the lake first gets into the mid 70 degree- range for a few days. If you see one black ant on the water start fishing a black ant because when the fish start hitting the ants, the fly fishing can be fast and furious.

Fly fishing a small high lake of 1/2 mile across is not much of a problem for a small boat or even a float tube. However, larger lakes need to be fished with care because of possible afternoon prevailing winds can create rough and choppy water conditions that can pose a danger to a small boat. Float tubers always need to wear a life vest and small boaters should always wear them when underway or during rough water conditions.

I hope these fly-fishing tips will help you to better enjoy the outdoor experience. Remember to check the state fishing regulations for the waters that you are going to fish.

Be careful, and good luck fishing the High Lakes of Oregon and the Pacific Northwest.

Stanley Stanton: Oregon Fly Fishing Guide and McKenzie River fishing guide,
For trout fly fishing tips, “how to” fly fishing information, plus guided Rainbow Trout Fly Fishing, Steelhead Fly Fishing, classes for beginners, smallmouth bass and Oregon salmon fishing.

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Of all the different fly fishing techniques, nymph fishing is probably the most difficult. Because fly fishing nymphs are extremely small, both beginners and pros alike have a bit of trouble with this fishing technique. However, knowing how to use this technique is extremely important when trout fishing, as trout feed mostly on insects beneath the surface of the water.

A nymph is basically an insect that has not fully developed yet. You will notice that older, mature insects & flies skim along the surface of the water, whereas nymphs still live underwater.

So why is fishing with nymph fishing so challenging?

What a fly fisherman does when using fly fishing nymphs is try to imitate the immature insects that still live underwater. Therefore it is difficult and nearly impossible for the angler to see the fish going for the fly. But in dry fly fishing, the fly sits on the surface of the water and the angler can easily see when a fish bites.

Another challenging aspect of fishing with fly fishing nymphs is the fact that the nymph, being under the surface of the water, is more prone to bumping into rocks and trees, emulating a fish taking the hook. It is also more likely to snag your fly nymph on those rocks and trees.

In addition, using fly fishing nymphs become more of a three-dimensional game, rather than a two dimensional game in dry fishing. The angler must now have an accurate cast both front & back, left & right, and be able to accurately predict the depth at which the trout lie.

Lastly, trout are inclined to take in a nymph more subtly that a fly on the surface. They may not hit has hard, and therefore it may be hard for the angler to tell when he has hooked a trout.

As you can see from the above, fishing with fly fishing nymphs can be very challenging, and turns many people off to this technique. However, now that you have a better understanding of the difficulties involved in nymph fishing and with practice, the only problem you will have is catching too many fish (is that even really a problem?)

When fishing with fly fishing nymphs, you use basically the same equipment as when dry fishing. The only additional items I would recommend are small weights (to help your nymph sink a little better), strike indicators (to be able to tell when you’ve hooked that trout!), and a nice pair of fly fishing sunglasses (preferably polarized so that you would be able to see through the bright orange strike indicator and the glare in the water better).

There are many different methods of fishing with fly fishing nymphs, as much of the technique is about preference and style. In this article I will speak briefly of two different methods.

First there is the basic method of using fly fishing nymphs. It is the easiest for a beginner to use and is a great way to get started.

In short, you will cast straight across the river and let the current take your fly fishing nymph slowly downstream until it is right below you downstream. At this point, the nymph is being pulled by the current and wiggling to emulate a real nymph. You don’t necessarily need a strike indicator with this method because your line will be a little tighter as it is being pulled by the current, so it will be a lot easier to feel a trout taking your fly.

So, what’s wrong with this beginner method? Well, a number of things, actually. First, the only point this method is likely to draw any strikes is right at the point where your nymph begins to lift off from the depths of the river. This greatly narrows the scope of the effectiveness of this fly fishing method; since the vast majority of the float of the nymph is “wasted” (trout are unlikely to take a nymph that is careening at weird angles across a river).

The only downside to this method is that trout are much less likely to take a fly fishing nymph as it is roving across the river while tautly attached to a line.

The next technique I will discuss is the dead drift method. This method can be used three different ways: by quartering, by casting directly upstream, or from your boat.

By quartering, you can cast just as you would while dry fishing. Cast upstream and across the river, allowing your fly fishing nymph to “dead drift” for the maximum distance possible. Let some line out so the line is drag-free.

You can do this casting directly upstream as well, or even from your boat. Just make sure not to keep the line too taut, as it will not imitate a real nymph authentically.

All in all, fishing with fly fishing nymphs can be very challenging, yet very rewarding with persistence and practice. By spending some time to learn this technique, you will surely be able to maximize the amount of trout you catch and minimize those days where you go out and catch nothing.

If you’re serious about fishing using the fly fishing nymphs technique, you can check out my blog for more information here: [].

Chris Sweeney writes on various topics, including many different types of fishing. To see his fly fishing nymphs blog, check out []

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